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“I seriously believe that a fiction writer merely transfers the novel from the subconscious mind to paper.”

The-multitudes-of-ripples_coverThe author is a research scientist by training. He is technical consultant who works in an advisory capacity to the pharmaceutical industry. He specializes in intellectual property, technology upgradation and information technology. He is a science writer specializing in theoretical and philosophical foundations of modern scientific thought.

In a conversation with CinnamonTeal, the author spoke about his book and his expectations from those who read it.

CinnamonTeal: What inspired you to write your first book?
Vaachakmitra: I have been an avid reader of English literature. I found out that these writers had developed insights into human nature through their writings. I also found fiction writing as an analytical tool. I write because it gives me an understanding about my own subconscious mind.

CinnamonTeal: After this first-hand experience, would you want to write again?
Vaachakmitra: I have found strange solace in fiction writing. I would definitely continue writing fiction. In fact , I am writing my second novel. I am already writing blogs on my experience in writing my second novel.

CinnamonTeal: Is your book based on a real-life inspiration or is it completely insightful?
Vaachakmitra: I think writing a novel is confluence of reality and imagination. For the first time novelist , the reality consists of his personal life and imagination consists of his interpretation of this reality. Maybe , in my second novel , there will be less of myself and more of mankind.

CinnamonTeal: Did you face any criticism while in the process of writing your book?
Vaachakmitra: I was brought up by my parents who dotted on me. My father was a serious student of avant garde literature. So criticism is something I have never faced. Now my family appreciates my communication skills.

CinnamonTeal: What kind of readers do you wish to aim at? The youth or a much older crowd?
Vaachakmitra: It is difficult to pin point my intended audience. On one hand the period of my novel and the sensibility of the protagonist are that of person who would be in fifties and sixties. On the other hand , Indian ethos are meant for all age groups. Finally , this is a sincere tribute to masters who have shaped my literary sensibility. I think all these three groups would enjoy my novel.

CinnamonTeal: What do you wish the readers to take away from this novel, at least thematically?
Vaachakmitra: Frankly speaking , I am not in favor of inspirational writings. A genuine fiction , like life itself , demands seriousness. If anyone can read through this novel ,I am sure , she/ he would try to introspect her / his life. The readers would find that everyone’s life can be interpreted in more than one way. The core , the philosophical core , of this novel is that all these interpretations of ones life contain , within themselves , a germ of truth. If my novel helps readers to be aware of these multitudes of interpretations of life , I would consider myself as a good writer.

CinnamonTeal: What does the title ‘The Multitudes of Ripples’ signify?
Vaachakmitra: I think my previous answer contains the reason why I called it by such a title. I have been asked by someone why the word multitude appears as plural noun. To some purists common noun can be used in plurality. However , I think that not only grammatically, but even semantically, this plurality is correct. When there is more than one multitude, then they can be called multitudes.

More importantly , I have used plurality here because I am convinced that such a multitude occurs in each one of us. The plural form refers to that , after reading this novel , every reader would become aware of her/his own multitude. Since the reader’s multitude is triggered by a the protagonist ‘s multitude , plurality of multitudes is correct notation.

Finally , I was asked about the use of definite article ‘The’ in the title. I think that definite article refers to the fact that beneath these multitudes of interpretations, there lies a unitary life. There could be many interpretations of life but life is singular. In some sense we, as individuals, are different but life that runs through our consciousness is one. The definite article ‘The’ refers to singularity that unites all of us.

CinnamonTeal: What kind of books do you personally like to read? Did they influence your thought process for this book?
Vaachakmitra: I was a voracious reader in my younger days. About , twenty five years ago , I decided to become a writer. At that point of time , I decided to stop reading fiction because I did not want to imitate my favorite writers. After such a time lag , I think details are forgotten but the sensibility has remained. My favorite writers were many. I can name only a few of them. Camus, Sartre, Maugham, O’Neill, Bellow, White, Achebe etc. When I had to read my own novel while editing , I found echoes of all of them in this novel.

CinnamonTeal: What advice would you give aspiring writers?
Vaachakmitra: All I can say is the novel is lying dormant in your subconscious mind. Just tap your inner self to find that novel. I seriously believe that a fiction writer merely transfers the novel from subconscious mind to the paper.

CinnamonTeal: How, if at all, does your process differ from the other authors, when writing a novel?
Vaachakmitra: I wish I knew that answer. I am not much into biographies , so I can’t compare my writing process with those of others. However as mentioned in one of my blogs , the novel compels you to give it a birth. Writers are the instruments not owners of the novel. ( unless it concerns the royalty payments!).

CinnamonTeal: Any specific reason for choosing the pen name of ‘Vaachakmitra’?
Vaachakmitra: I have mentioned in one of my blogs why I chose to write under a pen name. As for this particular pen name , I think I want to emphasize that I was a reader first and then a writer. My empathy is with readers hence this name.

CinnamonTeal: In the years to come, will you reveal your true name or would you prefer it being masked from the media’s focus?
Vaachakmitra: I am not sure. I have been a private person all my life. I am comfortable with anonymity that a pen name offers. However , I am not sure what future holds. All I can say is ‘ Que Sera Sera’.

The Multitudes of Ripples, a novel, is a first-person narrative of an entrepreneur who struggles to make sense of his life and demonstrates how optimism incorporates meaningful semantic even in the face of psychopathology. Available on Dogears Etc.. Also available on Infibeam, and Flipkart.

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“I like books that are intelligently written, strive to deliver some meaning”

img_20160516_213823Sanjay Kumar Singh went to school at St. Michael’s High School, Patna and Bishop Cottons Boys School, Bangalore. He graduated in Economics (Honours) from St. Stephen’s College, Delhi, and has a Law Degree from Campus Law Centre, Delhi University.  He is now a practicing lawyer and lives with his wife Leena, daughter Vaibhavi, fondly called Tiggle, and their pet Labrador named Phantom, in Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.

In a conversation with the author, we asked him about his book and what inspired him to write it:

CinnamonTeal: Tell us about the title. What made you choose “Fear is a Friend” as the title of the book?

Sanjay Kumar Singh: Fear is an emotion and emotions have the potential to further agitate the subconscious which itself is stupendously powerful. If fear is embraced as a friend and not treated as an embarrassing companion, it can work with the subconscious to create solutions and provide answers even in extreme situations of risk and turmoil, as happens with Ashwin Bhardwaj, the central character of the book.

CinnamonTeal: Share with us your taste for books. How much of your reading influences your writing? And what made you write a thriller? Any favourite authors whose style of writing has influenced you?

Sanjay Kumar Singh: I like books that are intelligently written, strive to deliver some meaning, even if in between the lines, and do not unnecessarily stretch their content. To that extent, what I like reading does stand as a parameter to improve upon in what I write.

I have been reading thrillers from a young age. Of late, particularly, I have been disappointed with the quality of thrillers generally available; for often they consume pages to the point of boredom and often feature far too much brutality. I felt that I could write a thriller without these shortcomings and give it ingredients that would make the book not only far more engaging and entertaining but also leave the reader with positive feelings and images in his mind.

While I do have some favourite authors, I do not think my writing style has been influenced by any of them.

CinnamonTeal: Let us in a bit on your other tastes. Like your taste for poetry that reflects in your writing. What is it about poetry that fascinates you?

Sanjay Kumar Singh: So far as tastes are concerned, at this point in my life, I find that my tastes or attention are largely devoted to the deeper meanings of life and after-life.

Poetry can link with the subconscious in a much more expressive and powerful mode that does incite my interest and my attempt to bring out the same. I have a published book of poems titled “Mascara on Whiskey Nights and Other Poems” and my next work, just completed, is a novel written in poetry and has some contemporary pressing issues as its theme and setting.

9789386301123_fcCinnamonTeal: Explain to us how you went about researching for your book? Share with us any advice you may have.

Sanjay Kumar Singh: I have had, I daresay, a wide reading base, including that related to current affairs and issues which helped me in reducing the research I actually had to carry out for the book.

I would advise one to take time in conceiving the plot of the book. This at times can be quite demanding and even painful, but is well worth the intensity of the effort put in. Then, to express the plot in a manner that is comfortable both to the writing style of the writer as also to the reader. And, of course, I feel that one should avoid incorporating features or aspects in one’s book about which one doesn’t know much.

CinnamonTeal: Will there be a sequel to the book? Will Ashwin Bhardwaj ever quit?

Sanjay Kumar Singh: Yes, there would be a sequel to the book for, yes indeed, Ashwin Bhardwaj does indeed doesn’t look like as if he would quit!

CinnamonTeal: Describe for us your emotions as you began to write your first novel? Was there trepidation? A sense of excitement? A fear of the unknown, perhaps?

Sanjay Kumar Singh: Of course, there were tremors of trepidation and currents of excitement throughout and yes, the feeling that FEAR is indeed a friend!


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“Yes, it is the industry’s responsibility to increase readership”



Following his reply to a post in a newsletter, a series of email exchanges with Thomas Abraham, Managing Director of Hachette India, led to the request for an email interview which he generously agreed to. One of the most outspoken heads of any publishing house, his positions on various aspects of the publishing chain have been well articulated, and in this interview he retains his position on many issues. I started by asking him about his publishing programme:dscn6401

Leonard Fernandes: Give us an idea of the kinds of books Hachette India has invested in, the success rates of the various genres. How do you carve your niche in an increasingly fragmented market where the publisher’s brand does not play a very big role in the reader’s book buying decisions? While many publishers seek new authors as a way of attracting readers, what has your approach been to seek out and publish new voices?
Thomas Abraham: We were in effect a startup though we have one of the world’s biggest groups behind us, and typically of a start-up we’ve had our ups and downs as the market turned. We were lucky and were insulated against the 2008 crash where the market started going downhill, because of the Stephenie Meyer boom. 2011 however was a bad year with a couple of big distributors going down with the shutdown of Reliance’s Time Out bookstore chain and the near closure-level downsizing of Landmark. But, given the depth of the group, we’ve always had something big come along every other year—from Sachin Tendulkar to Harry Potter. But we’re equally clear that we need to have stable profit that is not dependent on just a couple of books.
In India we are relatively young—not yet ten years old—and our local publishing [programme] is even younger. Trade publishing has a fairly similar spread across leading publishers, and so nobody can really claim to be that different. It’s more in the emphasis one has for the list one builds within a broad commonality. When we set up we decided we would begin with two clear publishing divisions—Adult & Business, and a smaller Children’s division. Together the two divisions do about 50 to 60 books a year in a tight programme that has two clear priorities—the discovery of new voices, and publishing profitability. I’m pleased that both objectives have been achieved.
To quote our Editor-in-Chief, Poulomi Chatterjee: “With more and more Indians writing in English in different genres it’s tempting for all publishers to find and publish the strongest voices among them. This requires considerable reading and research in ‘non-book’ spaces. In non-fiction we’d look for subject experts or thought leaders or dedicated journalists who write for various print and online publications or on their own blogs and who we believe can execute a book idea well. In fiction it’s tougher to actively ‘seek’ out writers unless they are previously published, but choosing from among the manuscripts that land on your desk is not difficult once you’ve defined what it is you’re looking for in a story and the exact readership you want to serve. On and off, publishers also launch initiatives to discover new voices. Two years ago, we had teamed up with DNA and launched a ‘Search for the Next Bestseller’ contest, during which we received over 300 entries and shortlisted 20, out of which 3 were chosen by us to be mentored and published. It revealed that there are many talented writers out there with interesting stories to tell.”
Because of our strategy, as much as 80% of our local list focuses on new writers. Within our stated objective we have a broad approach. So we have bestsellers, award winners and marquee names alike in our stable, with Subroto Bagchi, Anuradha Roy, Manjula Padmanabhan, Krishna Udayasankar, Ritu Dalmia, Sachin Tendulkar, Malala, Roopa Pai, to name a few. We perhaps have the best food and drink range across group and local publishing alike, and also the most cutting-edge offerings in the crime and thriller genre. As a clear and conscious choice, with just one or two exceptions, we do not publish in the sub-Rs 200, low-priced segments. Our emphasis leans toward non-fiction but we do mirror our group strategies and have a full spread across genres from translation, literary fiction, crossover/general fiction, commercial fiction, as well as business, biography and health & fitness. We’ve been shortlisted for every major Indian prize and many overseas prizes (including the Man Booker), and have won the DSC prize, the Crossword Prize, the Hindu Young World Prize; and two crossword Prizes just yesterday. Not bad going for a very young publishing programme—and we’ve only just begun.

How are you addressing the children’s/YA segments, which, it is said arguably, constitutes the largest reading population?
This is true, but also a bit of a misconception. Yes it’s the largest segment but not really in the true trade/consumer readership sense. Parents will spend on their children’s reading needs because they believe it essential for the child to get ahead. And a lot of that will be generic product in progressive age groups. But because it is not a discerning market they will choose the cheapest product rather than the best one. (Yes, there is a big difference even in the story of Goldilocks told and illustrated as a cheap book, and one that has it done by key stages and reading levels, or higher quality illustrations for instance. But largely the typical Indian parent won’t care.) On the fiction side, where experimentation should be visible, just a handful of brands will dominate where there is buzz (generally from overseas) driving sales. But is there any steady tickover in range or authors? No, I don’t think so. And YA is practically a dead segment here, which illustrates my point, that we get them while they are young, thanks to some super brands like Harry Potter or Enid Blyton or Wimpy Kid, but then lose them until they are adults. The YA segment is resuscitated every 2-3 years, when some new phenomenon comes along. It was Stephenie Meyer, and a host of vampire tales for a few years; then John Green. But there is no consistent selling. There are perhaps just two or three bookstores in the country that even have a YA shelf. (by the way, I don’t include the campus romances in YA, but as regular adult; though there is a chunk of college students who read this)
So for children’s [literature] we have a separate division though we do a very small list of just about a dozen books per year. We don’t do more than one or two in the toddler segment because of the costs of colour, and our list is largely for the 8-14 range. But each of those are a bit different and are the best designed and produced in their field. We have had a runaway bestseller with Roopa Pai’s The Gita for Children, and a best fiction award for Venita Coelho’s Dead as a Dodo.

The publishing industry itself is seeing a lot of change. There are new entrants, while many old players are facing difficulties due to changes in customer’s book buying habits, an emergence of the best seller culture, a strong preference for popular fiction as opposed to literary fiction, or non-fiction, etc.. Give us your thoughts. Is it as profitable, or as gloomy, as various publishers, depending on who you speak to, make it to be? Give us your sense of the publishing industry in English here in India.
Yes, the change began in the early 2000s from two disruptive waves that India got quite late when compared to the west. First it was the chains (though Landmark began in 1987 as India’s first modern large format bookstore, the chains came into their own only about 12 years later) that were deep discounting, and at that time it was the indies that were protesting. Post 2009, the disruption was from online sellers, and this time it was the chain that was hard hit. It’s reached a point where more stores have shut in the past 3 years than have shut in the previous 30 years. Both disruptions had one thing in common—it ended up pushing the base discount up considerably. So today a strong, and rather unfortunate market characteristic, is that it’s less about the book than about discounts and returns allowances. Whether publisher or bookseller, the focus is less on how we should build and grow the market but how each link in the chain can absolve itself of risk.

Speaking of a fragmented market, share with us your approaches to marketing your titles. You recently took an unusual step of hiring a digital marketing agency. How is that working and what prompted that association?
We’re reorienting our marketing considerably and are probably the first to have consumer insight as an integral part of it. Social media isn’t that unusual… I think most of the big publishers also have digital agencies. We’ve taken the more unusual step of avoiding cookie cutter launches as a standard promotional effort unless they fulfill certain criteria.
Our new Head of Marketing & Consumer Insight Avanija Sundaramurti is the very passionate force behind our social media marketing. Given how difficult it is to reach the final consumer using PR and in-store messaging, publishers are constantly looking for ways to get the information about new books out to readers. Over time, social media has emerged the most cost effective and targeted medium to communicate directly with readers. This is why we are focussing on it, though no direct correlation between social media and sales increase is clear yet.
It makes sense to have an agency handle the daily social media management of the social assets because publishing houses such as Hachette have lean marketing teams and wouldn’t have the manpower and skills required to create daily content for these handles in house. It is working well for us so far and has helped us improve our presence on social media. It has also helped us roll out pilot social media advertising experiments to refine how we think about digital in the future. We have quadrupled our Twitter following completely organically and all metrics, whether it is reach or engagement. have exponentially increased on Facebook.

Do you see English publishing in India gradually becoming a capital-intensive sector? Where one must invest a lot of money in marketing, distribution, development of many titles, to survive?
If it continues to go like this—high advances, marketing co-op expenses, high discount, high returns, flat prices—yes it may well end up being so.
But no, it doesn’t need to be that. There are different-sized publishers in trade with no one player being super colossal with over a 35% share. So it can easily be different strokes for different folks if some common sense drives the market. The simple fact is that books need to be acquired and discounts need to be calibrated to market reality. Acquisitions cannot be made going in at the top end, at maximum stretch levels. That leaves one with no safety net and an undue dependence on one or two ‘super leads’; and the perennial hope that an unknown makes it big. To explain: One crime thriller may have sold 30,000 copies but if the market history average for that type of thriller is 7000; that does not mean that every book that reads fairly well needs to be acquired at the 25,000 level (which is sort of what happens now). Whether it should be acquired at the average or above that is dependent on how the acquisitions editor sees it and how much s/he is backed by the sales & marketing teams. This has glaringly been absent in the last seven to ten years or so, where advances have skyrocketed and over 90% of them don’t earn out. This is probably because of the sudden explosion of publishing houses, and acquisitions have been made at unsustainable levels to pad lists. This does nobody any good—not the publisher, not the author, not the agent, not the trade. Only the printer benefits as a higher-than-needed run is cobbled up to match the advance paid. But one easily forgets the cold fact that if this one hasn’t lived up to projections—the next book will not be viewed the same way and the author’s brand will take a beating. But over the past two years, thankfully we’re seeing the beginnings of a return to sanity; and there are fewer insane bids.
The very nature of trade publishing in India (low average prices, low margins, multiple titles released; and the whole swings & roundabouts nature of making money) prohibits high marketing spends except for a few brands.

If reports are to be believed, publishing houses are depending more on agents to get them the good books. Do you see this as a good development or should it be viewed as another level of filter between the author and publisher in what is already seen as a laborious process?
I personally see it as a good development if the agents understand the business and the market. We’ve had agents for some time now, and a few years ago, I would have been sceptical about an agency being able to sustain itself, given Indian prices, and the new market realities, where more books fail today than ever before. But I’m delighted that at least a couple of them are making a serious go of it, as a business, and doing so while understanding the constraints of trade publishing today. The days of ‘get-the-maximum-advance-you-can-and-run’ are over. A good agent will be able to explain to an author what limitations exist, and also, within those limitations, get an author fair representation and fair terms.
The biggest benefit agents bring to the publisher is the elimination of the slush pile. We used to get an average of four manuscripts a day, and while I was at Penguin it was six a day. However when I put together the combined years at Penguin and Hachette and tot up the figures, that’s a staggering 10,000 plus manuscripts submitted over about ten years from which maybe about six were published. Clearly an unproductive effort when you’ve got a small team. We’ve discontinued the direct unsolicited submission for our adult books, and ask people to route submissions through agents.

What do you make of recent attempts by publishers to adopt a digital-first (or digital-primary) approach for publishing? This when worldwide figures of e-book adoption seem to have hit a wall? Overall, how do you judge the performance of e-books, given that, in the not-to-distant past, the death of printed books itself was predicted? And what are your thoughts on e-book distribution mechanisms available in India?
I’ve always been sceptical about that but am hoping to be proved wrong. There are 2-3 publishers essaying this route and let’s wait and see. It is my view however that it is a very different demographic (or psychographic if you will) that reads on the phone (digital-first equates here primarily to the phone) and that community will not pay regular prices to read, and will want content free. So that is not a sustainable stand-alone business model, not even with tailored content such as quick reads or e-singles, which we’ve all tried over the years. The average download demand is too little. So that leaves advertising as a revenue model. If you don’t have the downloads and the traffic buzz, the ad revenue is not going to be particularly high either. Back to square one.
In India eBooks never really took off, though at Hachette we’ve beaten the average trend. But that I will admit is because of the sheer depth and range of the catalogue, and not from any market we were able to tap differently. So worldwide where base readerships were high, the numbers skyrocketed over about five years (eBook contributions had reached as high as 32%) and then declined and now have settled down to 15%-17% levels. In India the average never went above 5-6%, with just a couple of exceptions like us and PRH (Penguin Random House).
What remains to be seen is whether Amazon, with its heavy advertising for the Kindle as e-reader, will be able to bring about a shift in default reading habits here which still prefers paper (the way soft drink companies did transforming India from a lemon drinking country to a cola drinking one) or whether the Kindle will just end up competing as another tablet.

Much is said of the reading habit in India. With no accurate data, one can only rely on opinions. What is your take on it? Do you see it as the publisher’s role to increase readership among various reader groups (such as children, young adults, etc.)?
There is clear data written all over the wall. Readership is falling. Bestsellers are getting bigger yes, but that’s not enough. We are the only country where Harry Potter and the Cursed Child (story 8) has overtaken Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (story 7). These spurts apart (every year there will be about 5-6 books like this spread across publishers), the bestseller charts are either dominated by the new strand of campus-romance-fiction or the ancient Wren & Martin and Word Power Made Easy. This is good but is not the core readership that can sustain industry. I do not subscribe to the theory that this will end up creating new readers who will then move on (‘graduate’ is the word used) to other genres. That according to me is not going to happen—definitely not in any statistically significant way. Much like the legion of Salman Khan fans are not going to be gravitating towards Kurosawa anytime soon. Mind you, I’m not knocking the campus romance. It’s brilliant that a new mass market strand has been created, and can help capitalize the market. But that’s not enough is the point I’m making. The trade publishing industry will remain healthy if and only if we have a stable midlist with breakout bestsellers (yes a literary bestseller will be lower than mass market) in different genres. One of the most telling examples is the decline of crime fiction as the dominant category. World over this is a marker of leisure reading. In India this has fallen off significantly if we track it from the 70s to now, and this despite (or perhaps because of?) the growth in same genre viewerships on TV.
Yes, it is the industry’s responsibility to increase readership as well as the government’s if it sees nation building in broader cultural-intellectual terms. But all of us do too little. And though this may be a 10-20 year plan it needs to be done. If you don’t get children reading now, this will be a market that reacts only to certain in-mode books and reads only for education or ‘getting ahead’. A far cry from the market diversity we had as late as the 1990s and even up to the mid noughties.

Translations are almost a craze in India nowadats,in itself giving it a much-needed impetus, considering the dearth of knowledge one set of readers have about good, progressive texts in other languages. In this mad rush for ‘good books’ to translate, where do you see the possibility of mis-steps? What has Hachette India’s approach to translations been?
It’s a good step but often done with wrong assumptions. First one must realize translations are not a ‘hot’ genre. If you look at the genre itself, beyond one or two exceptions, they (like their English literary counterparts) don’t sell beyond low midlist levels. So by all means undertake this as a serious part of one’s publishing programme, but do so with the clear assessment of how much it can sell. At Hachette we are clear that we have a certain number of slots reserved for translation, but we equally know that they will need to be acquired with two parameters—the books have to be outstanding (I’m delighted that our translations have made award shortlists) and viable.

You have been a supporter for taxation for books. Explain your position. There are many who feel that this additional cost might come in the way of an already, seeming, decline in book-buying habits.
Let’s first get the cost barrier argument out of the way. Yes I’m a firm believer in taxation for books, but the tax on books should be at the lowest level of 5%. So a book priced at Rs 275 (let’s take a relatively average price) would go up to Rs 288. I don’t believe that’s a deal breaker in the purchase decision. And as to the high priced books, a 5% increase from a mandated tax is not going to affect sales is my view. Now as to why have taxation:
As always I speak from the trade perspective, and, let me further clarify, this is my personal view. There are a couple of others who think the same way, but, yes, we are in a complete minority, and the publishing associations will be fighting to keep books tax free. I personally believe the time has come for books to be taxed to streamline accounting, create and formalize data capture, as well as gain serious recognition as an industry that is twice the size of Bollywood, not a perennial cottage industry looking for a handout. We get no real government support in IPR protection and other key issues because the government thinks it has done its bit by granting us tax-free status. The paying of taxes will also force accounting into the open (reducing if not eliminating the whole underhand ‘parchi’ business that is widely prevalent) and will actually give the industry the upfront data it needs—something we’ve not had in over a hundred years.
This is not to say books should become expensive for students who can’t afford them. I believe books should not be an umbrella category, as the three strands—School, College & Higher Ed including STM, and Trade are very different. So the books that need to get cheaper are core text books, and those can be exempted from tax. Much like all movies are taxable with a few being tax-free. I see no reason why trade books which begin as ‘entertainment’ should be tax-free. Today we are competing with film, TV and social media as infotainment, and I don’t get why Harry Potter the movie should be taxed, while the book should not. True there is a cultural dimension to books and today’s novel is tomorrow’s text, but then tomorrow is the point at which it should be tax-free. Likewise there will be non-core textbooks that are reference reading and serve vital educational reference needs. Those can have different support systems—they can also can be subsidized via government education departments. the way ELBS used to do, being recognized and classified as educational. For the rest, market forces will drive pricing. I do believe that books should have the lowest rate of tax and that slight increase is not going to cripple consumer purchasing ability.

Similarly, I have heard you lament about the fact that book prices have hardly increased on an average, and that, after considering inflation and other factors, there isn’t much increase in the price of a book. Some publishers are pushing the envelope on this and pricing books higher than before. What are your thoughts and what has Hachette India’s position been on this?
First let’s ask the question—who’s deciding on prices? Publishers yes, but more often than not publishers held hostage to a trade perception that orders will drop as you move across price thresholds. Because of this, prices in India are stuck two decades ago equally by perception and from the ‘educational hangover’. For instance I remember buying John Grisham in college (I’m talking about the late eighties) at about Rs 250. Then, Rs 175 to Rs 250 was the mass market price point (for ‘imported’ books). When we started publishing John Grisham (almost 30 years later) we moved that up to Rs 350, and today Rs 350 to Rs 399 is our mass market price point. And it hasn’t affected sales a bit. And before somebody cries piracy, let me point out that even books priced at Rs 150 get pirated. Price point is not going to deter piracy, only IPR protection and policing will. There is the true story about a mass market book dropping to Rs 75 (from Rs 110) to counter piracy, while the pirates smirked and continued to sell at Rs 85.
Likewise when Harry Potter 7 (Deathly Hallows) was published in 2007, we priced it at Rs 975 (I was at Penguin then) and there was a massive backlash saying nobody would buy a children’s book at that price; and even with the hype the maximum we could expect was 30,000 copies, whereas at Rs 499 we would have sold a lakh. There was a lot of debate, but there were a lot of costs too, and we stayed firm at Rs 975. We ended up selling 241,000 copies. So pricing, I believe, should be done by book, the demand, the value proposition. Some genres definitely need to have their price points reexamined. Yes equally there are some genres or categories or authors who may need to be priced low because of wider small town penetration. We still hold Enid Blyton at the Rs 160 to Rs 199 level.
Now look at what I called the ‘educational hangover’. The whole low price thing flows from seeing books as educational products that fulfill a nobler purpose; and even with trade the whole literary-cultural dimension is added on. So let’s take a look at two bestselling titles in either category. In the mid-90s when I worked at OUP, the Oxford School Atlas (OSA) was priced at Rs 90 (John Grisham the top thriller seller was at about Rs 250 price point). Today about 25-30 years later the OSA’s 35th edition is priced at Rs 315; and the New Learning to communicate ( English textbook of 116 pages) is at Rs 280 but the trade ‘pricing perception’ would still price the 400 plus page John Grisham at Rs 299 at best!
Today when costs are just about 15-20% below the west; when discounts and returns have edged up to being at western levels, it is ludicrous to think we can price books at Rs 199-Rs 250 as standard (yes, as exceptions, the campus fiction books require that price—one reason we don’t publish in that category; and maybe a couple of others), and it is time that prices went up.
We (Hachette India) had the dubious distinction of pushing up prices beyond this perception level when we set up and we were a bit worried when we saw the Nielsen surveys in 2011 about average pricing because the gaps were so much between us the next publisher. Today the gap is quite small. And I’m delighted that for certain mass market authors there are higher-priced experiments—Jeffrey Archer for instance is sold today in trade paperback at a higher price.
Fundamentally it’s quite simple—if you are in publishing for business, you have to turn a profit however small, to stay in business. And unless one has grants or unlimited funding from venture capitalists, one has to price to market—from costs and sales history also; and not just from perceptions that are probably outdated.

At the Publishing Next conference, a constant gripe is the distribution issue. As a bookseller myself, I have had to contend with depleted stocks (where distributors say they don’t have a particular title while the title shows as being available online). Where have we gone wrong with distribution, and what immediate measures you think could be taken to fix the ‘problem’? That more bookshops are closing than opening isn’t helping matters either. Similarly, you have spoken out against the sale or return policy, that seems to be slowly being discouraged.
That’s right and this flows from the problem I’ve touched upon above. It comes from a new knee jerk response to tough times that would rather minimize risk than sell more books. And you know this has reached truly silly levels when every title—even if it’s a big brand—is negotiated down to how much sale or return can one squeeze out of the publisher.
Let’s pause to take a look at what was the original selling chain less than ten years ago. There were three stakeholders in getting the book to the reader—the publisher, the distributor and the retailer. For almost a 100 years there was a discount and returns structure that was in place, constructed by market reality. Retailers had 33-35% discount and the distributor had 40%-42% with 10% returns. This fitted the pattern needed for the Indian market based on its prices and overhead costs then. Gradually with the onset of the chains, the retailer began demanding full sale or return citing higher costs like rentals in malls etc. The distributor then began passing on the demand to the publisher saying, “it’s your book you take the risk.” Which is a valid argument only if one then changes the entire structure. So if a distributor today is acting only as a transporter then the discount is redundant and the distributor should just be on a commission for having performed a service and not sales. The discount for distribution was to cover territory with a sales force and sell books. Likewise for the retailer, who picked what s/he wanted to stock based on a clientele s/he knew and books that matched his/her store philosophy. Each stakeholder owned a share of the risk. With the advent of an indiscriminate sale or return policy, that risk is being abrogated, and consequently quality bookselling is taking a beating. The big brands are known and get frontage. All the rest move in a pipeline that heads out to return four months later. Once in a blue moon something clicks—a success rate and a readership spread that is too little to sustain an industry over the next two decades.

On the same lines, give us your assessment of the online book market. Your thoughts on the discount policies, return policies, and the almost absent possibility of discoverability. You sell books through your own website. How has that worked for you?
No we don’t sell books through our website. As a foreign company we are not allowed to retail. We have outsourced the sale to a third party seller. But hardly any sales happen there, because it is not trying to be a retail site. It remains a publisher’s promotional site but should somebody not find a book anywhere, this is one window where they can come in and get the book.
I’m a firm believer that online and brick & mortar can exist together; indeed are needed together. Online is good for current hot sellers, auto / cross-recommendations and making the long tail available. Brick & mortar is for bestsellers and a curated segment wise list that facilitates better discoverability while providing a great browsing experience based on individual store philosophy (yes, I believe bookshops need one). In India neither is fully delivering on what they should do. Both chase bestsellers (which is natural) but with a few exceptions (largely indies) don’t do much else about curation. Waterstones in the UK is a classic case study of a turnaround by configuring different stores differently and curating better. Until that happens we’ll have the perpetual gripes about discounts, cost of rentals, and online deep discounting. Even today in these difficult times, the indies that define themselves well, manage costs well and stock according to their core competency are doing well.
So online came in and created a huge wave with some stunning growth. Today they are estimated to be between 45% and 55% of any publisher’s business depending on the sort of books that are your oeuvre. However as with a lot of things online, this has so far been a scorched earth policy leaving bookshops burning, without creating that much new value. Unless they get out of this spoiler phase (one presumes they want to make profits sometime) and leverage their advantages of long tail and outreach, their focus will remain narrow if one looks at a long term developmental view. But that will come as India gets connected better and outreach extends everywhere. Currently it is largely the bestseller that occupies online attention with the long tail being bought by buyers who hunt for the book, rather than through active promotion and building of communities.
Flipkart’s drop in books where it was the largest retailer in India two years ago is a stark case in point. Taking your eye off the ball where experience and continuity are concerned; and depending just on price is never going to be a long term solution where books are concerned. I’m pleased that they are taking stock and planning a comeback. Amazon comes in with its tried-and-tested back end and even deeper pockets, so one can expect the deep discount battle to continue for some time, unless India does something like France and recognizes bookstores as cultural spaces and levels the playing field with a discount cap. But this is unlikely.

I would also like to know your thoughts on the current climate of censorship, or self-censorship in the country.
It is much more in the limelight now, but this instant knee jerk reaction in calling for a book ban has been there for some time irrespective of governments. What is worrying now is the fringe that is not reined in, or how a case can be criminalized just for harassment. Nobody should have that sort of power. We have two chapters of P.E.N. here and so there will be a lot of focus on this aspect. Where publishers are concerned, I’m not sure if it’s self-censorship or prudence (or pusillanimity depending on where you stand) but certainly most international publishers will have strong anti-lawsuit leanings and are policy bound to go with their legal counsel’s rulings on a pre-publication read.

Any special plans for 2017.
We’ve had a brilliant 2016, and we’re optimistic about 2017, though market conditions are likely to remain tough. There’s a great lineup of books as we step up our local publishing with three great superlead non-fiction offerings from Subroto Bagchi, Viswanathan Anand and Rakesh Sharma. There are great new voices too—watch out for Archana Garodia, and Ritu Singh, in particular. Our food & drink list is shaping up nicely; and the children’s list has both Sachin Tendulkar and Malala frontlining it alongside a new book from new star Roopa Pai. So fingers crossed that it will be good going as we head into 2018 and our tenth year in India as a company.

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“I would like to write more books in the future”

DSC00156Renuka Nayak, was born in Mumbai and spent a good part of her life in Africa and Cambodia. She currently lives in Mangalore. She is a teacher by profession and a mother to two naughty boys who keep her on her toes all day; yet the writer in her makes sure to write a few lines each day. She believes that she was born with a pen in her hand rather than a silver spoon in her mouth.

The author of Expect the Unexpected, when asked about what inspired her to write a book about fear, betrayal and suspense, had the following to say, Books always fascinated me. The stories would take me to a different world. I would relive the characters. One fine day, just like that I sat down with a book and a pen and began to write. That’s when I realized that I enjoyed writing as much I enjoyed reading. I fell in love with the idea of making up my own stories and bringing the characters to life. That’s when I decided to write a book. My dream of writing a book came true when I took a break from work (I am a teacher) as I was expecting my second child. I finally found the time to pen down my stories. That is when ‘Expect the unexpected’ happened. ‘Expect the unexpected’ is a collection of short stories on betrayal, fear and suspense. It would appeal to the senses of one and all. I would like to write more books in future.9789385523495_fc

Expect the Unexpected by Renuka Nayak

Available now on

as Paperback and Ebook versions.

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“All that I am today is because of mama”

Leticia Afonso, the author of “Think from the Heart” explains how she came to be where she is in life today.









“All that I am today, I owe it to mama big time. Single-handedly she raised the three of us. She never deprived us of anything. It was as if our wish was her command. She would make ends meet somehow. No matter what she had to go through, she never showed  any sign of distress. She would start her day with a smile and would brighten up the entire room with her laughter. She always thought us to face our fears; worrying is no solution to any problem, she would say. She had to be both parents to us. She was strict when required, yet was the most loving person I have ever known. Though she is not amidst us today, I am sure that she is watching over me from heaven above. She has been my greatest strength in this journey of life. No matter what problem I faced, I could always turn to her. I had to only speak of my difficulties and they would be solved the moment I spoke of them. No matter how tired she was, she always gave a listening ear. All that I am today is because of mama. I don’t think I would have learned so much about life, if it wasn’t for her. She always said, ‘Education is very important. Learn as much as you can. It will never be a waste, It will always come in handy.’ And today I am a Software Engineer. Mama being a teacher of English, instilled in me my love for literature. I loved the way she gave her speeches, they were like music to my ears.”

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Meet Our Author: Chidambaram Ramesh

Chidambaram Ramesh is the author of Shroud Of Turin – An Imprint Of The Soul, Apparition Or Quantum Bio-Hologram, recently published by CinnamonTeal.This is the first book on the Shroud of Turin by an Indian author, and proposes for the first time, the Quantum Bio-Holographic idea to explain the shroud image. It also gives re-birth to the forgotten science of palingenesis – the resurrection of spectral images of plants out of ashes. The author has attempted to explain almost all the peculiar characteristics of the Shroud image like photographic negativity, spatial encryption of 3-D data, non-directionality and other amazing aspects.

What inspired you to write ‘The Shroud of Turin’ particularly since there are so many books on the subject? What makes it different?
Indeed, there are numerous books on the Shroud of Turin. But most of them are documentary in nature, that is, they usually provide a comprehensive list of collected facts or information relating to the Shroud, its documented history, etc. This book is distinct in as much as it attempts to offer valid scientific explanation and a working hypothesis for the formation of mysterious image on the Shroud. There are only very few theories trying to provide explanation to the Shroud image; nonetheless they could not explain all the unique or extraordinary characteristics of the Shroud image. The quantum bio-holographic idea, the central theme of the present book, meets almost all the scientific criteria embarked by earlier scientific studies on the Shroud image. The photonegative characteristic, three-dimensional encryption of bodily depth-relief data, non-directionality, double-superficiality and other amazing aspects of the Shroud image are explained under the tutelage of quantum bio-holographic theory.

How did you get interested in the mystery of the Shroud of Turin?
In fact, I was initially working on a different, but closely related subject – morphogenetic fields. There are umpteen ideas and theories –both ancient and contemporary – to suggest that morphogenetic development of our body is more “structure-related” than “chemistry-related”. A precise blueprint of the body is always hypothesized to guide the process of bodily development. The raison d’être for my belief is an medieval practice – Palingenesis – which is the resuscitation of spectral plants out of their ashes and a natural magic where spectral 3-dimensional images of snakes/scorpions manifest out of decomposed parts of the corresponding organisms after their physical death.  During the course of my scientific pursuit of these ideas, I unexpectedly came across the Shroud mystery. I could observe and discover a close linkage and resemblance between the phenomenon of 3-dimensional image creation in the process of palingenesis and the 3-dimensionally encoded image on the Shroud. I believed the underlying science of these natural phenomena, if explored, can help  to unwrap the mystery enshrouding the image on the Turin Shroud. The result is the book before you!

How much time did you take to finish the book?
As I said earlier, I was initially researching on the ideas of morphogenetic fields. The entire idea is based on the process of palingenesis. So I decided to collect, compare, and analyze almost all the available literature on the subject.  This work spanned over about two years and my efforts, I hope, yielded results. I could collect very valuable observations made by many legendaries like Carl Linnaeus, Sir Thomas Brown, Athanasius Kircher,  Sir Kenelme Digby etc who were of high repute in Western science and whose views we may still regard with high respect. It is a collection of hard-to-find information. It took about three years to see the book in print.

Has the process been easy? Did it ever make you feel hopeless and bleak?
It was not easy but interesting and the most enjoyable pursuit for me. In a way, it is like digging for treasure – treasure of knowledge. My coming to know of the observations of persons like Carl Linnaeus that all organisms – plants as well as animals – are capable of manifesting their 3-dimensional geometric structure even after their physical death or decomposition was a wonderful personal feeling and experience. It was never boredom.

Can you tell us your one best moment while working on this book, something you’d treasure down memory lane?
Yes, it was the moment I had when I saw, for the first time, the Shroud image in 3-dimensional. It was sent to me by Dr.Petrus Soons, a renowned Shroud 3-D researcher and in fact its creator. I was always worrying I write about a thing I have not seen in person. But the 3-D image I received from Dr.Soons relieved me of.

Briefly describe to us how you went about conducting research for the book?
I have, of course, stood on the shoulders of many ancient and medieval authors. The works are theirs; I have only collected them and tried to bring them into the realm of current science. At the start, my mind was bogged with questions how the decomposed parts of organism can record precise 3-D geometrical structures of the organisms. David Bohm’s concepts of implicate order and holographic universe, Pribram’s idea of ‘holographic brain’, Rubert Sheldrake’s morphic fields etc helped me a lot to arrive at the quantum holographic idea to explain the miraculous 3-D profiles created by organisms after their physical death. Dr.Mitchell’s essays on Quantum Holography, Late Dr.Sue Benford’s article “Empirical Evidence Supporting Macro-Scale quantum holography in non-local effects” supported the idea of quantum holography in more concrete terms. Finnish scientist Dr.Matti Pitkanen was kind enough to explain me the scientific/theoretical basis of quantum bio-holography through personal emails. My academic background in engineering assisted me to grasp these concepts easily.   As regards the Shroud research, the findings of Dr.John Jackson, Particle Physicist Dame Piczek, Dr.Petrus Soons, etc made me to confirm that the Shroud image is an imprint of quantum bio-hologram.

Do you recall how your interest in writing originated?
Originally, my idea was to write a scientific paper on the subject. The multitude of information and ideas that I could collect over the period of time prompted me to make it into a book.

Any future projects in mind?
Now, I am a stern believer of the quantum holographic idea and indeed, I have enough scientific evidences to support my belief. The subject, if explored further, is certain to offer breathtaking discoveries, especially in the medical field. I have set my mind to work on these ideas further. My next book will be on Clairvoyance (Anjanam-Gazing) and Quantum Holographic Connections.

Can you tell us your experience of working with CinnamonTeal Publishing?
I must first thank CinnamonTeal Publishing for transforming my dream of publishing a book into a reality in a short span of time. I am very grateful to Ms.Queenie R.Fernandes, Co-founder/director for her patience to carry out all the corrections/improvements I used to suggest time to time. On all fronts, quality of print, cover design etc – I like and recommend CinnamonTeal Publishing.

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Meet Our Author – Vikram Karve

VIKRAM KARVE born in Baramati Pune and educated at IIT Delhi, ITBHU Varanasi and The Lawrence School Lovedale Ooty, is an electronics and communications engineer by profession, a human resource and training manager by occupation, a teacher by vocation, a creative writer by inclination and a foodie by passion.

An avid blogger, he has written a large number of fiction short stories, professional, technical and management articles, self help and philosophical musings and creative non-fiction pieces in magazines and journals for many years before the advent of blogging. Vikram lives in Pune with his family and pet Doberman girl Sherry, with whom he takes long walks thinking creative thoughts.
Do have a look at Vikram Karve’s creative writing blog at: and his Professional Profile at:

1. How did the idea for the book come about?

I love good food. I love walking. So I love going on long walks exploring, searching for authentic food wherever I go. I got the idea for writing about food while “food-walking” on the streets of Mumbai a few years ago.

2. When do you think you really became passionate about food? Or better yet, when do you think you realized it?
I knew I was passionate about food when I realized that most of the time I was thinking about good food – this happened when I was in college.

3. Tell us why readers will enjoy ‘ Appetite for a Stroll‘?
Appetite for a Stroll is a unique book of foodie adventures breathtaking in its simplicity which surely has something for you – you’ll discover authentic eateries you’ve never been to before, it’s got recipes you’ve never read before, tips on the art of eating, a delicious journey which you can easily identify with, especially if you are a foodie or a wanderlust person.

4. What’s your favorite recipe from the book?

5. Do you cook yourself?
Yes, I love cooking as much as I love eating.

6. What was the first dish that you were really proud of?
The first dish I was proud of was CHICKEN DO PIAZA which I improvised during an impromptu dinner for friends who suddenly landed up with a broiler chicken and asked me to cook it for them.

7. What sets you apart from other food writers?
I am a genuine simple earthy trencherman, an ardent foodie, who honestly believes in the maxim “There is no love greater than the love of food”.

8. Could you share a favorite recipe?

Of course I’d love to share my favorite recipe… It’s called EGGS VODKA and a KISS…a story and a recipe…do read it in Appetite for a Stroll on page 117.

9. Do you have any future writing plans?
Yes. I plan to become a full time writer soon. I am planning a novel (on which I am already working) and book for children and dog lovers. Maybe I will write a book on “Teaching Stories” and Wisdom and Philosophy through Humor. I also want to publish an anthology featuring a collection of my short stories written by me over the past 20 years in various magazines and in my creative writing blog and another anthology of my philosophical musings and self help articles. I will continue to write short stories, philosophical musings, food and travel writing and self help articles and continue to blog actively.

10. How was it working with CinnamonTeal Publishing?
Appetite for a Stroll is a well designed and attractively packaged book which makes an easy read and has been liked by readers. The quality of publishing is really good. I wish the book had been advertised, publicized, and marketed well and displayed in prominent bookstores and bookstalls at airports and railway stations and was easily available to readers. Appetite for a Stroll is only available online. Most readers prefer to browse and buy books in bookstores or bookstalls rather than online.

(Readers may note that CinnamonTeal has since begun offering marketing packages, for more details contact shulen @

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Meet Our Author – U. A. Kiran

U. A. Kiran was born in Cannanore in Kerala, India. From Kerala, he came to Howrah in West Bengal to learn Bengali, Hindi and finally English which became the medium of expression and the language of his creativity.
Having completed his Diploma in Management in West Bengal he worked in Andhra Pradesh for some time. It was not until late that the writing bug bit him. Currently he resides in Goa.
The author likes writing poems, stories, novelettes/novels, dialogues/dramas, chalk-shaping, making puzzles. He has a passion for instrumental music and loves travelling.
U. A. Kiran is the author of The Alpha and The Omega and Other Stories and Beginner’s English Grammar.
1) Can you tell us what your latest book, Lost Smiles, is all about?
In the book ‘Lost Smiles’, I have brought together various natures, relationships and moods of people around us and the usual and unusual situations in human life.
‘My Tummy’ and ‘My Figure, My Problem’ would tickle your funny bones till the end. Some stories, like ‘Fear of Defeat’ and Beauty at the Window’, have the pinch of suspense which you would find enjoyable. ‘The Wood’ and The Last Train’ would terrify you, while romantic airs are spread all over ‘The First Kiss’ and The Casket’. Sometimes, you would feel whether such an incident could really happen. While writing this book, I have kept in mind to entertain the reader with plenty of imaginable and unimaginable characters and their affairs.
2) What inspired the stories behind Lost Smiles?
I’m a keen observer and like to write about things that I think need remembering—things that stimulate an emotional response; be it suspense, fear, pleasure. So it was obvious that Lost Smiles was inspired by the characters around me.
3) When did you first see yourself as a writer?
In my childhood, I was an ardent story-teller and gradually attempted to write in my teenage days. I was drawn towards fiction novels as they offer an endless chance to explore and experiment, without anyone imposing limitations. In the later years this passion for fiction pushed me to do what I like doing the best, i.e. WRITING…
4) Tell us why readers will enjoy your new release.
Each character in the book has a different story to tell. And since the characters in the book are inspired by the people around me it would make for enjoyable reading for the readers. Besides, the human emotions that pop up every time you turn the page will keep the reader engrossed every time he flips a page.
U. A. Kiran’s latest book, ‘Lost Smiles’, published by CinnamonTeal Publishing, can be found on
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Meet Our Authors – Dr. Shiva C. Aithal and Abhay B. Solunke

This is the first in a series of blogs where we will introduce you to our authors. Our authors have chosen to follow the self-publishing route for many reasons, yet propelled by one underlying desire – to make their work accessible to everyone.

The authors we cover today are distinguished persons in their own fields. Their first steps towards self-publishing and print-on-demand were tentative but they have now mastered the process and have completed their third book. Meet authors Dr. Shiva C. Aithal and Abhay B. Solunke.

Dr. Shiva C. Aithal received his Masters degree in Microbiology from Marathwada University in 1993 and his Ph.D in Microbiology from Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded. His Doctoral studies are associated with Agro-wastes utilization and biofuel production. He serves as an Asst. Prof. in Microbiology at Undergraduate and Post graduate level in Dnyanopasak Shikshan Mandal’s College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Parbhani (M.S.) A recognized PG teacher in Microbiology and Biotechnology of Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded, Dr. Aithal is involved in teaching students at graduate and postgraduate level and has to his credit several papers published in the field of Microbiology in National Journals and Symposia and several books in Microbiology.

Abhay B. Solunke completed his M.Sc. in Microbiology from Marathwada University in 1993. He is a recognised University PG teacher in Microbiology and Biotechnology of Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded and has taught at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. He has several research papers to his credit and also research projects. He has introduced M.Sc. Industrial microbiology as an innovative subject in UGC X plan program. His Ph.d. work is associated with Mushrooms and the bioconversion of Agro-wastes. He is currently serving as Head-Department of Microbiology and Industrial Microbiology and also as the vice principal of Sant Tukaram Collge, Parbhani.

Their books:

Pollution Control by Microorganisms – Bioremediation, Biocontrol and Other Emerging Technologies

This book presents an authoritative explanation and discussion of a wide range of problems, in three sections, related to the environment, at a level suitable for practitioners and students in science, engineering, medicine, administration and planning. This book will be of particular importance for the increasing number of teachers and students involved in degree and diploma courses in environmental science.

Microbial Catabolism – A Review

This book contains 100 pathways for microbial catabolic metabolism of primarily xenobiotic organic compounds. It includes information on most known microbial catabolic reaction types and the organic functional groups they transform and provides a thorough overview of research and developments being carried out in the field of microbial degradation of xenobiotics compounds that cause harm to the environment. This compilation can also be used as a book for advanced courses in Microbiology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Environmental sciences, Enzymology and Metabolic engineering. This book is a part of UGC Xth Plan Innovative Programme M.Sc. Industrial Microbiology curriculum.

Air Microbiology: A Environment and Health Perspective

This book is currently the only one solely devoted to Air microbiology. Considering the importance of air in our lives, and the fact that very scare or little information/literature is available on the subject, an attempt has been made to give comprehensive and exhaustive information regarding all the aspects of Air Microbiology. This book covers all the important aspects of air microbiology which is essentially a part of study for Microbiology, Content wise, the book is rich in latest and modern methodologies including nucleic acid sequencing and microbial strain typing.

All three books are published by CinnamonTeal Print and Publishing Services, Margao, Goa.